I had a simple objective I was trying to solve. I wanted to compare the energy levels of a satellite to that of an electron. I used a web page that calculated a satellite’s speed and height to create a Numbers table of the energy levels (satellite.numbers). I was comparing this to the hydrogen absorption bands (hydrogen absorption bands.numbers). However, I hadn’t looked at these for some time and needed to arrange them with energy levels as opposed to wavelength or wavenumbers.

This led to a cascade of wikipedia articles about electron volts, photons, properties, quantum electrodynamics, elementary particles, bosons and fermions, Millikan, Fourier, black body emissions, etc.

1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronvolt

2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photon_energy#Physical_properties

3) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_Model

4) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photon#Second_quantization

5) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photon#The_photon_as_a_gauge_boson

6) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photon_energy#cite_note-Millikan1923-45

7) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourier_series

It is interesting to discover how all of this returns to black body emissions. This touches on virtually all of the notable names of physics, Einstein, Planck, Bose, Bohr, Debye, Born, Heisenberg, Maxwell, Newton, Dirac, etc. The lengthy article on photo energy lays out the progress in this area. How photons changed from particles to waves to particle/waves. It seems clear that in discussing the quantum mechanics of an atom, that the issues raised here need to be dealt with. Since that is going to be beyond my capabilities and my objective, I need to summarize or simplify the issues. I need to distinguish between my model being a simplified model of atomic structure and a complete model. I am trying to advance beyond the ionic and covalent bond model, the Bohr model, the valence bond model, the quantum model, into something different, without necessarily solving all of the issues the basic physics present.

It is also interesting that the simple question of how or why atoms emit and absorb energy is dealt with, as possessing probabilistic or causal model, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photon_energy#Stimulated_and_spontaneous_emission. The wikipedia article on photons is really important.

Wikipedia:

The modern photon concept was developed gradually by Albert Einstein to explain experimental observations that did not fit the classical wave model of light. In particular, the photon model accounted for the frequency dependence of light’s energy, and explained the ability of matter and radiation to be in thermal equilibrium. It also accounted for anomalous observations, including the properties of black body radiation, that other physicists, most notably Max Planck, had sought to explain using *semiclassical models*, in which light is still described by Maxwell’s equations, but the material objects that emit and absorb light, do so in amounts of energy that are *quantized* (i.e., they change energy only by certain particular discrete amounts and cannot change energy in any arbitrary way). Although these semiclassical models contributed to the development of quantum mechanics, many further experiments[2][3] starting with Compton scattering of single photons by electrons, first observed in 1923, validated Einstein’s hypothesis that *light itself* is quantized. In 1926 the chemist Gilbert N. Lewis coined the name *photon* for these particles, and after 1927, when Arthur H. Compton won the Nobel Prize for his scattering studies, most scientists accepted the validity that quanta of light have an independent existence, and Lewis’ term *photon* for light quanta was accepted.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, photons are described as a necessary consequence of physical laws having a certain symmetry at every point in spacetime. The intrinsic properties of photons, such as charge, mass and spin, are determined by the properties of this gauge symmetry. The photon concept has led to momentous advances in experimental and theoretical physics, such as lasers, Bose–Einstein condensation, quantum field theory, and the probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics. It has been applied to photochemistry, high-resolution microscopy, and measurements of molecular distances. Recently, photons have been studied as elements of quantum computers and for sophisticated applications in optical communication such as quantum cryptography.

The standard model is also important, not necessarily because of the information it provides for atomic structure as I am discussing, but rather that a model for atomic structure needs to be in agreement or a derivation from the standard model. Although my objective is to describe and discuss a simple interaction of electrons, a complete analysis probably inevitably must go back to the standard model.

The criticisms of hybridization are correct. No sp3 emissions exist. Hybridization succeeded in shifting the center of an electron’s charge away form the nucleus. It shifted the concentric electron pairs into non-concentric domains. I accept this requirement, but I arrive at this realization from a different perspective, as a chemist. I am not attempting to justify this model with physics or mathematics. I will leave that to those far more proficient in those areas.